villaggio di toraja wikipedia
Apalagi bagi suku Toraja, rumah Tongkonan dianggap sebagai lambang … Toraja Beliefs . Slaves could buy their freedom, but their children still inherited slave status. Dan kabupaten Toraja Utara dengan Rantepao sebagai ibu kotanya. At first, heaven and earth were married, then there was a darkness, a separation, and …  and has continued since, with remittances sent back by emigre Torajans performing an important role within the contemporary economy.  Coffee was the first significant cash crop produced in Toraja, and was introduced in the mid 19th century, changing the local economy towards commodity production for external markets and gaining an excellent reputation for quality in the international market. Buijs, Kees (2006).  The Toraja language contains many terms referring to sadness, longing, depression, and mental pain. Fjala Toraja vjen nga termi i gjuhës Bugine në riaja, që do të thotë "njerëzit e lumenjve". Qeveria indoneziane e ka njohur këtë besim animist si Aluk To Dolo ("Rruga e paraardhësve").  Torajans traditionally believe that death is not a sudden, abrupt event, but a gradual process toward Puya (the land of souls, or afterlife). Northern Mamasa, Central Mamasa, Pattae' (Southern Mamasa, Patta' Binuang, Binuang, Tae', Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi). There are about 650,000 of them around the world. However, it is common for at least 25 pairs of chickens to be set against each other in the context of the ceremony.. Their population is approximately 1,100,000, of whom 450,000 live in the regency of Tana Toraja ("Land of Toraja"). Tana Toraja – Negeri di Atas Awan.  In 1976, about 12,000 tourists visited the regency and in 1981, Torajan sculpture was exhibited in major North American museums. Són uns 650.000, dels quals uns 450.000 viuen en la regència de Tana Toraja ("Terra de Toraja"). Toraja dapat mengacu pada beberapa hal berikut: Suku Toraja; Bahasa Toraja; Tana Toraja; Kereta wisata Toraja; Halaman-halaman lainnya Halaman disambiguasi ini berisi daftar artikel dengan judul yang sering dikaitkan dengan Toraja. Aluk is not just a belief system; it is a combination of law, religion, and habit. There are three methods of burial: the coffin may be laid in a cave or in a carved stone grave, or hung on a cliff. Mayoritas suku Toraja memeluk agama Kristen, sementara sebagian menganut Islam dan kepercayaan animisme yang … Slaves lived in small huts, which had to be built around their owner's tongkonan. Despite close kinship and status inheritance, there was some social mobility, as marriage or change in wealth could affect an individuals status. As they send back money to their families, they enable the construction of larger tongkonan. Torajanët janë një grup etnik indigjen në një rajon malor të Sulawesi Jugor, Indonezi. Keunikannya bisa dilihat dari Rumah Adat Tongkonan yang semakin sempurna dengan … In 1992, the most powerful Torajan, the former chief of Tana Toraja Regency, died, and his family asked US$125,000 of a Japanese TV company as a license fee to film the funeral. Between 1984 and 1997, a significant number of Torajans obtained their incomes from tourism, working in and owning hotels, as tour guides, drivers, or selling souvenirs. Such exchanges not only built political and cultural ties between families but defined each person's place in a social hierarchy: who poured palm wine, who wrapped a corpse and prepared offerings, where each person could or could not sit, what dishes should be used or avoided, and even what piece of meat constituted one's share. Sometimes nobles married Bugis or Makassarese nobles. Bahasa Toraja adalah salah satu rumpun bahasa yang dipertuturkan di daerah Kabupaten Tana Toraja, Toraja Utara dan sekitarnya. He was known for the characters he created with paradoxical and rude characteristics: Professor Kranz, the ultra-timid Giandomenico Fracchia, and the comedic Ugo Fantozzi. 1.1.2. Nature is frequently used as the basis of Toraja's ornaments, because nature is full of abstractions and geometries with regularities and ordering. Several men perform the dance with a sword, a large shield made from buffalo skin, a helmet with a buffalo horn, and other ornamentation. In fact, the term "toraja" was invented by these coastal people to refer the isolated mountainous people. A ceremonial site, called rante, is usually prepared in a large, grassy field where shelters for audiences, rice barns, and other ceremonial funeral structures are specially made by the deceased's family. The earthly authority, whose words and actions should be cleaved to both in life (agriculture) and death (funerals), is called to minaa (an aluk priest). Various administration buildings were built in this style in recent years, e.g. This page was last edited on 12 November 2020, at 16:40. Gereja Toraja adalah salah satu kelompok gereja Protestan di Indonesia yang bermula di Tana Toraja, Sulawesi Selatan.Gereja ini adalah lembaga gereja terbesar di Sulawesi Selatan. Oleh karena itu, tak jarang juga peti mati juga sekaligus dianggap sebagai makam. Rongkong, Northeast Luwu, South Luwu, Bua. Douglas W. Hollan & Jane C. Wellenkamp (1996). Architecture in the style of a tongkonan is still very common. According to Tripadvisor travellers, these are the best ways to experience Toraja Village: 2 Days Toraja Tour (From US$133.34) Toraja Village Stay . Qeveria holandeze koloniale e quajti popullin Toraja në vitin 1909. During the time of the Dutch missionaries, Christian Torajans were prohibited from attending or performing life rituals, but were allowed to perform death rituals.  The cosmos, according to aluk, is divided into the upper world (heaven), the world of man (earth), and the underworld. The soul of the deceased is thought to linger around the village until the funeral ceremony is completed, after which it begins its journey to Puya. It covers an area of 1,990.22 km 2 and had a population of 221,081 at the 2010 Census and 228,778 at the 2015 Census; the latest official estimate (as at mid 2017) is 231,519. The nobility's condescending attitude toward the commoners is still maintained today for reasons of family prestige.. There are three main types of affiliation in Toraja society: family, class and religion.  Tourism was increasing dramatically: by 1985, a total number of 150,000 foreigners had visited the Regency (in addition to 80,000 domestic tourists), and the annual number of foreign visitors was recorded at 40,000 in 1989. JADWAL EVENT TAHUNAN DI TORAJA 2019 Torayaa 5:34:00 AM. , A clash between local Torajan leaders and the South Sulawesi provincial government (as a tourist developer) broke out in 1985.  Wealth was counted by the ownership of water buffaloes. Class was inherited through the mother. Bandara baru, Buntu Kuni' di Kabupaten Tana Toraja akan resmi beroperasi tanggal 28 Agustus 2020 .  High status is not as esteemed in Tana Toraja as it once was. To express social and religious concepts, Torajans carve wood, calling it Pa'ssura (or "the writing"). North Toraja (or Toraja Utara) is a regency of South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia, and the home of the Toraja ethnic group. The Toraja have indigenous musical instruments, such as the Pa'pelle (made from palm leaves) and the Pa'karombi (the Torajan version of a jaw harp). The Dutch colonial government named the people Toraja in 1909. Makale adalah sebuah kecamatan yang juga merupakan pusat pemerintahan Kabupaten Tana Toraja, Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia.. Kota Makale berjarak sekitar 310 km dari Makassar. The Cardboard Village (Italian: Il villaggio di cartone) is a 2011 Italian drama film directed by Ermanno Olmi. Featured Product. Structure and transformations in the religion of the Toraja in the Mamasa area of South Sulawesi, Leiden: KITLV. Powers of blessing from the wilderness and from heaven. The event was documented by National Geographic and broadcast in several European countries. Popullsia e tyre është përafërsisht 1,100,000, prej të cilëve 450,000 jetojnë në mbretërinë e Tana Toraja ("Toka e Toraja"). As a result, in 1987, the Torajan village of Kété Kesú and several other designated tourist attractions closed their doors to tourists. Over two centuries, they ignored the mountainous area in the central Sulawesi, where Torajans lived, because access was difficult and it had little productive agricultural land.  Souvenir stands appeared in Rantepao, the cultural center of Toraja, roads were sealed at the most-visited tourist sites, new hotels and tourist-oriented restaurants were opened, and an airstrip was opened in the Regency in 1981. Their population is approximately 750,000, 70% of which still live in the regencies of Tana Toraja ("Land of Toraja") and North Toraja. Në fillim të viteve 1900, misionarët holandezë fillimisht u munduan ti këthejnë malësorët e Torajaës në të krishterë. abbiamo musica di bambù e danza tradizionale toraja, inoltre possiamo visitare la tipica tessitura a mano tipica, inoltre il viaggiatore può visitare il giardino del caffè con la procedura dei chicchi di … Each person belongs to both the mother's and the father's families, the only bilateral family line in Indonesia. After the bloody ceremony of buffalo and pig slaughter, a group of boys and girls clap their hands while performing a cheerful dance called Ma'dondan. Rata-rata hotel di Tana Toraja memiliki harga sekitar Rp 350.000 hingga Rp 600.000 per malam, tergantung fasilitasnya. Language. Language varieties of Toraja, including Kalumpang, Mamasa, Tae, Talondo, Toala, and Toraja-Sa'dan, belong to the Malayo-Polynesian language from the Austronesian family. 450,000 of these still live in the regency of Tana Toraja ("Land of Toraja"). This has resulted in several clashes between Torajans and tourism developers, whom Torajans see as outsiders. Shumica e popullsisë është të krishterë, ndërsa të tjerët janë muslimanë ose kanë besime animiste lokale të njohura si aluk ("rruga"). Cast. In the ritual called Ma'Nene, that takes place each year in August, the bodies of the deceased are exhumed to be washed, groomed and dressed in new clothes.. Learn more about our high‑quality, great‑tasting breads that are enjoyed in kitchens across Canada. Toraja Village (Rantepao, Indonézia). Formerly this regency was part of Tana Toraja Regency.. There are various languages and dialects spoken in South Sulawesi. The out-migration of Torajans was steady until 1985. During the funeral, elder women perform the Ma'katia dance while singing a poetic song and wearing a long feathered costume. The word "tongkonan" comes from the Torajan tongkon ("to sit"). Hanya di zaman ini saja masyarakat Toraja menggunakan seng sebagai lapisan atap. Before Dutch colonisation and Christianisation, Torajans, who lived in highland areas, identified with their villages and did not share a broad sense of identity. The Indonesian government has recognised this animistic belief as Aluk To Dolo ("Way of the Ancestors"). The Dutch saw the animist highlanders as potential Christians. Meskipun memakai nama Toraja, Gereja Toraja terbuka bagi semua suku.Nama Gereja Toraja awalnya adalah Gereja Kristen Toraja Makale dan Rantepao dan Gereja Toraja berdiri sendiri (mandiri) pada tahun 1947 dengan … A wood-carved effigy, called Tau tau, is usually placed in the cave looking out over the land. Ma'bua is a major Toraja ceremony in which priests wear a buffalo head and dance around a sacred tree. Consequently, zoning restrictions were applied to these areas, such that Torajans themselves were barred from changing their tongkonans and burial sites. Although the national Indonesian language is the official language and is spoken in the community, all elementary schools in Tana Toraja teach Toraja language. Torajans believe that the deceased will need the buffalo to make the journey and that they will be quicker to arrive at Puya if they have many buffalo.  Some Torajans were forcibly relocated to the lowlands by the Dutch, where they could be more easily controlled. Toraja funeral rites are important social events, usually attended by hundreds of people and lasting for several days. This six-holed flute (not unique to the Toraja) is played at many dances, such as the thanksgiving dance Ma'bondensan, where the flute accompanies a group of shirtless, dancing men with long fingernails. FLIGHT SCHEDULE TO TORAJA 2020 Reviewed by Torayaa on 7:55:00 AM Rating: 5. The Thread … The ethnic Toraja language is dominant in Tana Toraja with the main language as the Sa'dan Toraja. Desa Pallawa ini juga memiliki Tongkongan, yaitu sebuah rumah dari leluhur yang digunakan untuk menyimpan jenazah dan umumnya dibangun berbentuk rumah adat dengan atap yang menyerupai perahu dan disusun dengan bambu. The word Toraja comes from the Buginese language term to riaja, meaning "people of the uplands". 2, Hetty Nooy-Palm, This Toraja myth was directly translated from the history of Toraja at the official Tana Toraja website. Sot, turizmi dhe paratë e dërguara nga Torajanët emigrant kanë bërë për ndryshime të mëdha në malësinë Toraja, duke i dhënë Torajas një status të famshëm në Indonezi dhe duke rritur krenarinë e grupit etnik Toraja. Yamashita (1994). Volkman (1982) called this phenomenon a death funeral inflation. This category has the following 7 subcategories, out of 7 total. Tidak semua jenazah bisa dimakamkan di tempat ini tetapi hanya untuk keluarga bangsawan terutama yang merupakan keturunan Ramba. , Tourism developers have marketed Tana Toraja as an exotic adventure—an area rich in culture and off the beaten track. A prominent attribute of Toraja language is the notion of grief. The government designated 18 Toraja villages and burial sites as traditional tourist attractions. Jika Anda mencapai halaman ini dari sebuah pranala internal, Anda dapat membantu mengganti pranala tersebut ke judul yang tepat. Sliced Breads.  Since then, South Sulawesi has four main ethnic groups—the Bugis (the majority, including shipbuilders and seafarers), the Makassarese (lowland traders and seafarers), the Mandarese (traders and fishermen), and the Toraja (highland rice cultivators). In a more complex situation, in which one Toraja family could not handle their problems alone, several villages formed a group; sometimes, villages would unite against other villages. The rituals associated with the tongkonan are important expressions of Torajan spiritual life, and therefore all family members are impelled to participate, because symbolically the tongkonan represents links to their ancestors and to living and future kin.  In 1950, only 10% of the population had converted to Christianity. IAKN Toraja berada di bawah naungan Direktorat Jenderal Bimbingan Masyarakat Kristen (P) Kementerian Agama Indonesia dan merupakan satu-satunya Sekolah Tinggi Agama Kristen Negeri di Sulawesi Selatan. (From US$127.44) Culture Tours (From US$177.44) Sulawesi I Makassar & Toraja Tour (From US$1,162.89) 3 Days Tana Toraja from Makassar: Kete Kesu Village, Menhir to Funeral Burial (From US$415.00) Family is the primary social and political grouping in Torajan society. The Ma'bugi dance celebrates the thanksgiving event, and the Ma'gandangi dance is performed while Torajans are pounding rice. cf. Aluk governs social life, agricultural practices, and ancestral rituals. Slaves were prohibited from wearing bronze or gold, carving their houses, eating from the same dishes as their owners, or having sex with free women—a crime punishable by death. La reggenza di Toraja Settentrionale (in indonesiano: Kabupaten Toraja Utara) è una reggenza dell'Indonesia, situata nella provincia di Sulawesi Meridionale. Il villaggio di Toraja alloggia a Lembang Nonongan e offre un antico villaggio tradizionale con 12 villaggi di tongkonan intorno. Buns & Rolls.  The coffin of a baby or child may be hung from ropes on a cliff face or from a tree. Toraja's indigenous belief system is polytheistic animism, called aluk, or "the way" (sometimes translated as "the law").  By the 1990s, when tourism peaked, Toraja society had changed significantly, from an agrarian model—in which social life and customs were outgrowths of the Aluk To Dolo—to a largely Christian society. Toraja continues to be a well known origin for Indonesian coffee, grown by both smallholders and plantation estates, although migration, remittances and off-farm income is considered far more important to most households, even those in rural areas.. Crespi d'Adda is a northern Italian village and hamlet of Capriate San Gervasio, a municipality in the province of Bergamo, Lombardy.It is a historic settlement and an outstanding example of the 19th and early 20th-century "company towns" built in Europe and North America by enlightened industrialists to meet the workers' needs. Altri progetti contiene immagini o altri file su ; Collegamenti esterni. Slaughtering tens of water buffalo and hundreds of pigs using a machete is the climax of the elaborate death feast, with dancing and music and young boys who catch spurting blood in long bamboo tubes. Relationship between families was expressed through blood, marriage, and shared ancestral houses (tongkonan), practically signed by the exchange of water buffalo and pigs on ritual occasions. Most of the population is Christian, and others are Muslim or have local animist beliefs known as aluk ("the way"). The Appropriate of Tourism, Anthropology, and Museums for Politics in Upland Sulawesi, Indonesia", "Performing arts and cultural politics in South Sulawesi", "Houses, hierarchy, headhunting and exchange; Rethinking political relations in the Southeast Asian realm of Luwu, "Traditional Culture, Christianity and Globalisation in Indonesia: The Case of Torajan Christians", "The history and legal position of Confucianism in postindependence Indonesia", "The ideology and terminology of kinship among the Sa'dan Toraja", "Houses, graves and the limits of kinship groupings among the Sa'dan Toraja", "The Kira-kira method of the Torajan woodcarvers of Sulawesi to divide a segment into equal parts", "Toraja Unique Ritual: Cleaning and Changing Clothing Ancestors corpse", PHOTOS: The Dead Live With Their Loved Ones On This Indonesian Island, Torajan people In Indonesia, graves are exhumed every three years, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Torajan_people&oldid=988347150, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Many low-ranking men can declare themselves and their children nobles by gaining enough wealth through work outside the region and then marrying a noble woman. In 1965, a presidential decree required every Indonesian citizen to belong to one of five officially recognised religions: Islam, Christianity (Protestantism and Catholicism), Hinduism, or Buddhism. Consumer Alerts (opens a new window) Ontario select distribution area. "Sulawesi Barat, Cermin Politik dalam Dua Masa", https://sq.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Toraja&oldid=2133692, Articles using infobox ethnic group with image parameters, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Tana Toraja sebagai daya tarik wisata paling diminati di Sulawesi Selatan memiliki kebudayaan yang khas Suku Toraja. Slaves could be taken during wars, and slave trading was common. Toraja society prohibits marriage between close cousins (up to and including the third cousin)—except for nobles, to prevent the dispersal of property. The death rituals are known as "smoke-descending" rituals, while the life rituals are "smoke-ascending" rituals; cf. Objek Wisata Tana Toraja . The aluk religion governs when and how Torajans dance. Before the start of the formal administration of Toraja villages by the Tana Toraja Regency, each Toraja village was autonomous. Berbicara tentang kenikmatan kopi, Indonesa memiliki banyak sekali kopi yang sudah diakui kenikmatannya di kancah internasional. Kabupaten Tana Toraja adalah kabupaten di Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan, dengan bupati bernama Ir. The tongkonan layuk is the house of the highest authority, used as the "center of government". Flute music, funeral chants, songs and poems, and crying and wailing are traditional Toraja expressions of grief with the exceptions of funerals for young children, and poor, low-status adults. Mayoritas urang Toraja mamaluak agamo Kristen, samantaro sabagian maanuik Islam jo kapicayoan animisme nan disabuik … In 1969, Aluk To Dolo ("the way of ancestors") was legalised as a sect of Agama Hindu Dharma, the official name of Hinduism in Indonesia.. In particular, the tradition requires the sacrifice of at least three chickens. The Pa'pelle is played during harvest time and at house inauguration ceremonies. Rambu Solo' adalah sebuah upacara pemakaman secara adat yang mewajibkan keluarga almarhum membuat sebuah pesta sebagi tanda penghormatan terakhir pada mendiang yang telah pergi. Buffalo carcasses, including their heads, are usually lined up on a field waiting for their owner, who is in the "sleeping stage". Reasonator; PetScan; Scholia; Statistics; Search depicted; Subcategories. The Torajans are an ethnic group indigenous to a mountainous region of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. A line was drawn around the Sa'dan area and called Tana Toraja ("the land of Toraja"). Perajalan ke kota kecil ini dapat dicapai dengan bis selama 7 jam atau menggunakan pesawat Casa selama 30 menit. The plan was opposed by some Torajan leaders, as they felt that their rituals and traditions were being determined by outsiders. Regularity and order are common features in Toraja wood carving (see table below), as well as abstracts and geometrical designs. Between 1951 and 1965 (following Indonesian independence), southern Sulawesi faced a turbulent period as the Darul Islam separatist movement fought for an Islamic state in Sulawesi. Sejarah. Each village is one extended family, the seat of which is the tongkonan, a traditional Torajan house. Ordinary family members reside in the tongkonan batu.  Most of the population is Christian, and others are Muslim or have local animist beliefs known as aluk ("the way"). Els Toraja són un grup ètnic indígena de la regió muntanyenca del sud de Sulawesi, Indonèsia. The Tana Toraja boundary was determined by the Dutch East Indies government in 1909. In the Toraja myth, the ancestors of Torajan people came down from heaven using stairs, which were then used by the Torajans as a communication medium with Puang Matua, the Creator. Kumpulan gambar tentang Kopi Toraja Wikipedia, klik untuk melihat koleksi gambar lain di kibrispdr.org The familial dons maintain village unity. Wikipedia: Instance of: ethnic group, ethnic group in Indonesia: Location: South Sulawesi, Indonesia : Authority control Q290201 National Diet Library ID: 00573304 MusicBrainz artist ID: a14498aa-1e48-413f-8f92-1901b5979c5b. Kjo faqe është redaktuar për herë te fundit më 8 korrik 2020, në orën 04:25. Tana Toraja was heralded as "the second stop after Bali". Nico Biringkanae. Dalam pembangunan rumah adat Toraja, masyarakat setempat tidak hanya mempertimbangkan bahan dan juga struktur bangunan yang digunakan, tetapi juga memperhatikan fungsi setiap bagian rumah. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page.  Toraja's ornaments have been studied in ethnomathematics to reveal their mathematical structure, but Torajans base this art only on approximations. In the early 1900s, Dutch missionaries first worked to convert Torajan highlanders to Christianity. The more powerful the person who died, the more buffalo are slaughtered at the death feast. In 1971, about 50 Europeans visited Tana Toraja. Originally, there was a ritual which allowed commoners to marry nobles (puang) and thereby gain nobility for their children. Ritet funerale të Torajas janë ngjarje të rëndësishme shoqërore, zakonisht të ndjekura nga qindra njerëz dhe që zgjasin disa ditë. Tana Toraja was first a subdivision of the Luwu kingdom that had claimed the area.  Kinship is actively reciprocal, meaning that the extended family helps each other farm, share buffalo rituals, and pay off debts. Dorgali, villaggio di Tiscali (in Italian) Tiscali Village is an archaeological site situated in Sardinia, in the comune of Dorgali. Rantepao juga merupakan ibukota Kabupaten Toraja Utara. There are three types of tongkonan. In 1972, at least 400 visitors attended the funeral ritual of Puang of Sangalla, the highest-ranking nobleman in Tana Toraja and the so-called "last pure-blooded Toraja noble." The exclusivity to the nobility of the tongkonan is diminishing as many Torajan commoners find lucrative employment in other parts of Indonesia. It is situated within a large cave in Monte Tiscali. In the present day, when tourism is the main income of the Torajans, funeral feasts have been held by non-noble rich families, mainly performed as tourist attractions.  The two rituals are equally important. In the late 19th century, the Dutch became increasingly concerned about the spread of Islam in the south of Sulawesi, especially among the Makassarese and Bugis peoples. (1988), Ch. Rantepao dikenal sebagai pusat budaya Suku Toraja. Paolo Villaggio (Italian pronunciation: [ˈpaːolo vilˈladdʒo]; 30 December 1932 – 3 July 2017) was an Italian actor, voice actor, writer, director and comedian.He was born in Genoa, Liguria.. Western tourists expected to see stone-age villages and pagan funerals. , The Torajan people had little notion of themselves as a distinct ethnic group before the 20th century. Wilayah ini terdiri dari dua kabupaten berbeda. In fact, the term "toraja" was invented by these coastal people to refer the isolated mountainous people. One common law is the requirement that death and life rituals be separated. As in other agricultural societies, Torajans dance and sing during harvest time. Il villaggio venne portato alla luce grazie agli scavi condotti tra il 1952 e il 1969 in un ampio terrazzo a 100 m s.l.m. Commoners and slaves were prohibited from having death feasts. Makale (Tallulembangna), Rantepao (Kesu'), Toraja Barat (West Toraja, Mappa-Pana). , Early Dutch missionaries faced strong opposition among Torajans, especially among the elite, because the abolition of their profitable slave trade had angered them. It was taboo, therefore, to marry "down" with a woman of lower class.  At first, heaven and earth were married, then there was a darkness, a separation, and finally the light. Kota Rantepao dilalui oleh Sungai Sa'dan yang memberikan sumber air bagi pertanian dan peternakan di Rantepo dan wilayah sekitarnya. Giving a clear expression of the psychological and physical effect of loss is a catharsis and sometimes lessens the pain of grief itself. Meskipun memakai nama Toraja, Gereja Toraja terbuka bagi semua suku.Nama Gereja Toraja awalnya adalah Gereja Kristen Toraja Makale dan Rantepao dan Gereja Toraja berdiri sendiri (mandiri) pada tahun 1947 dengan …  Torajans are renowned for their elaborate funeral rites, burial sites carved into rocky cliffs, massive peaked-roof traditional houses known as tongkonan, and colourful wood carvings. The grave is usually expensive and takes a few months to complete. After the formal administration of Tana Toraja, some Toraja dialects have been influenced by other languages through the transmigration program, introduced since the colonialism period, and it has been a major factor in the linguistic variety of Toraja languages.. To make aluk accord with the law, it had to be accepted as part of one of the official religions. Other Toraja gods include Pong Banggai di Rante (god of Earth), Indo' Ongon-Ongon (a goddess who can cause earthquakes), Pong Lalondong (god of death), and Indo' Belo Tumbang (goddess of medicine); there are many more.. On the other hand, marrying a woman of higher class could improve the status of the next generation. In the Toraja myth, the ancestors of Torajan people came down from heaven using stairs, which were then used by the Torajans as a communication medium with Puang Matua, the Creator. Much time and energy were devoted to raising water buffalo, pigs, and chickens, primarily for ceremonial sacrifices and consumption.
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